**Agriculture and rural development
Adapting the Innovation Systems Approach to Agricultural Development in Vietnam: Challenges to the Public Extension Service.
Rupert Friederichsen, Thai Thi Minh and others. Agriculture and Human Values, 2013, volume 30, number 4, pp. 555-568.
Abstract: Competing models of innovation informing agricultural extension, such as transfer of technology, participatory extension and technology development, and innovation systems have been proposed over the last decades. These approaches are often presented as antagonistic or even mutually exclusive. This article shows how practitioners in a rural innovation system draw on different aspects of all three models, while creating a distinct local practice and discourse. We revisit and deepen the critique of Vietnam’s “model” approach to upland rural development, voiced a decade ago in this journal. Our analysis of interviews with grassroots extension workers and extension managers reveals how they have received government, donor, and academic discourses on participation, user-orientation, and private sector involvement in innovation. Extension workers as well as managers integrate the reform discourses into the still-dominant transfer of technology model. We show how extensionists draw selectively on these diverse discourses to foster interaction with outsiders and clients, and bolster their livelihood strategies. We conclude that the conceptual framework suggested by the innovation systems (IS) approach is broadly appropriate for analyzing the Vietnamese case, but that the IS approach in the contemporary Vietnamese context requires adaptation for taking into account the blurred line between private and state sectors, and recognizing the hegemonic position of state-based networks. Improving extensionists’ ability to mediate between the conflicting principles of farmers’ self-organization and government control is identified as a key challenge for increasing innovative capacity in rural upland Vietnam.
Review of Rice Policies in China, Thailand and Vietnam.
Sina Xie and Orachos Napasintuwong. Kasetsart University Working Papers 201403, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2014.
Abstract: China, Thailand, and Vietnam are key players in world rice market in terms of production and trade. In the past few decades, rice policies in these three countries have changed significantly resulted in changes in production, exports and influences in the world market. This paper reviews major rice policy reforms in China, Thailand and Vietnam during past five decades. It is observed that although each country has practiced different policies at different periods, with the economic development, individuals and market forces have played more important roles in domestic market while government interventions still exist and it is important for the government to invest in rice breeding technology and infrastructure construction. It was found that China and Vietnam have benefited from farm system reforms, the adoption of hybrid rice and the investment in irrigation while liberalization of rice export premium and provision of credits in 1980s have helped Thailand to become the largest rice exporter. Free full texthttp://ideas.repec.org/p/kau/
The impact of land loss on household income: The case of Hanoi’s sub-urban areas, Vietnam.
Tran Quang Tuyen and Vu Van Huong. International Journal of Business and Society, 2014, volume 15, number 2.
Abstract: Using a novel dataset from a 2010 household survey, this study has provided the first econometric evidence of the impacts of farmland loss (due to urbanization and industrialization) on total household income and its sources in Hanoi’s sub-urban areas, Vietnam. It was found that the loss of farmland had a positive impact on nonfarm income and other income but a negative impact on farm income. More importantly, the results showed that farmland loss had no negative effect on total household income. The above findings suggest that under the impacts of land loss, households have actively participated in nonfarm activities in order to supplement their income with nonfarm incomes, which in turn might have compensated for the loss of farm income due to land loss. Therefore, the loss of farmland should not be considered as an absolutately negative factor as it can help households improve their income by motivating them to change their livelihoods towards nonfarm activities. [firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com].
The Relevance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to a Developing Country: Evidence from Vietnam.
Phan Thi Hong Duc. Proceedings of the Second Engaging with Vietnam Conference in 2010, 2010.
Abstract: This paper adopts the concept of accounting ecology proposed by Gernon and Wallace (1995) in examining the accounting environment of Vietnam to identify some of the factors that might explain the lack of support for International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in that country. Drawing on the literature of international accounting convergence models, the author assesses the potential impact of IFRS adoption on the quality and comparability of Vietnam reporting practices, the capital market effects and the potential costs of switching from Vietnamese General Accepted Accounting Principles (VN GAAP) to full adoption of IFRS. The paper also highlights some of the important factors that are likely to influence the progress of the implementation of IFRS in Vietnam. The paper concludes with a discussion of scenarios for future evolution of accounting standards in Vietnam in the light of the current global movement toward implementation of IFRS. Free full text http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/
Perceptions Towards International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS): The Case of Vietnam.
Duc Hong Thi Phan, Bruno Mascitelli and Meropy Barut. Global Review of Accounting and Finance Journal, 2014, volume 5, number 1, pp. 132-152.
Abstract: The perception of Vietnamese accountants regarding the advantages, disadvantages, potential costs and challenges of IFRS adoption in Vietnam will play a major role in its adaptation. Recently, the Ministry of Finance of Vietnam (MoF) announced its intention to revise the existing Vietnamese accounting standards (VAS) to align with the current IFRS. The MoF has not yet determined whether to fully adopt IFRS, converge or keep VAS as they are. This study examines the perceptions, concerns fears and expectations of the Vietnamese accounting community and in turn, assist the Vietnamese accounting standard setters in making favorable accounting decision affecting accounting practices. An aggregate of 3,000 questionnaires were sent to 3,000 Certified Public Accountants, Chief Financial Officers/Chief Accountants, and Accounting Academics in Vietnam internally in 2012. The study reveals that the Vietnamese accounting professionals are optimistic about potential benefits from IFRS adoption and indicate expected costs and challenges in implementing IFRS and suggest strong support in a gradual switch from VAS to IFRS, though the level of support varies amongst the three different groups of accountants. [Duc-etal-2014.pdf]. Free full text http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/
The Factors Effect to the Financial Efficiency of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) Enterprises Located in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Nguyen Ngoc Diep and Nguyen Anh Phong. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2013, volume 3, number 6, pp. 703-13.
Abstract: This paper is to examine and evaluate the operational efficiency at the enterprises that have foreign investment at HCMC in the stage 2007-2011. The research also evaluates the factors that effect to financial effect, especially for using BEP ratios–basis earning power (EBIT to the total assets) to measure the financial effect, because FDI enterprises normal get the incentive for differently corporate income tax in Viet Nam. The research results show that there are six factors affecting to financial performance including in: turnover, capital owners (equity), long term debt to total asset, tangible assets to turnover, sales expensive to turnover, and the management expensive to turnover. From that point, the authors also have petitioned that is to enhance performance and management enterprises as well as improvement the investment policy of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC).
Business associations and the politics of contained participation in Vietnam.
Tu Phuong Nguyen. Australian Journal of Political Science, 2014, pp. 1-16.
Abstract: The development of the private sector in Vietnam since the mid-1990s has accompanied the emergence of organised business interests, which is recognised as vital to pursuing the agenda of economic modernisation. This article aims to explore the significance of the interactions between the state and business associations representing small-and-medium enterprises. It demonstrates that business associations have transformed state?business relations in a way that is distinguishable from state corporatism or societal pluralism. The analysis examines the interplay between state actors and emerging non-state entities, and the deliberative capacity of intermediary organisations in the policy-making process, specifically through the Vietnam Association of Small and Medium Enterprises. It is argued that this process constitutes a new mode of political participation that reflects the entanglement of the state and private capital interests. It reveals features of contained participation and contributes to the research agenda on deliberative and governance practices in post-socialist transitional economies. [t-f].
Cambodia-Laos-Vietnam: Economic Reforms and Sub-regional Integration.
Vannarith Chheang and Yushan Wong. Kyoto Sangyo University economic review, 2014.
Abstract: This paper reviews the gradual transitions and progress of economic reforms and transformations in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (CLV) since the late 1980s and the subregional cooperation and economic integration among the three countries in promoting economic development and poverty reduction especially along the border areas under the development triangle initiative. Liberal market economy in Cambodia, socialist-oriented market economy in Laos and Vietnam, and global and regional economic integration stay the mainstream of the political economy of development of CLV countries. State is the main actor in facilitating economic growth while the market is the driving force. With relatively high economic growth rate driven by trade openness and the inward flow of foreign direct investments, CLV countries are emerging to be an integral part of the regional economic dynamism of ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific region. However, the remaining challenges need to be tackled are institutional capacity, good governance, and labor productivity. [Chheang&Wong-2014.pdf]. Free full text http://ksurep.kyoto-su.ac.jp/
Exchange Rate Movement and Foreign Direct Investment in Asean Economies.
Jaratin Lily, Mori Kogid and others. Economics Research International, 2014.
Abstract: The inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) are important for a country’s economic development, but the world market for FDI has become more competitive.This paper empirically analyses the exchange rate movements and foreign direct investment (FDI) relationship using annual data on ASEAN economies, that is, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore. By employing ARDL bounds test approach, the empirical results show the existence of significant long-run cointegration between exchange rate and FDI for the case of Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines with all countries recording negative coefficient implying that the appreciation of Singapore dollar, Malaysian ringgit, and the Philippine peso has a positive impact on FDI inflows. Using the ECM based ARDL approach for causality test, both Singapore and the Philippines show long-run bidirectional causality between exchange rate and FDI whereas long-run unidirectional causality running fromthe exchange rate to FDI inMalaysia. Furthermore, this study also found that short-run unidirectional causality running from the exchange rate to FDI exists in Singapore. [Lily-etal-2014.pdf].
Foreign Direct Investment and the Survival of Domestic Private Firms in Viet Nam.
Ari Kokko and Tran Toan Thang. Asian Development Review, 2014, volume 31, number 1, pp. 53-91.
Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) may benefit local firms in the host country through various kinds of spillovers, but it may also raise competition and result in the crowding out of domestic firms. Using detailed firm-level data for the period 2001–2008, this paper examines the aggregate effect of FDI on the survival of domestic private firms in Viet Nam. We estimate the impact of both horizontal and vertical FDI and explore how the presence of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) influences the exit hazard for private firms. The results suggest that horizontal and upstream FDI raise the exit hazard significantly, while downstream FDI may reduce the hazard. The presence of SOEs has a direct negative effect on the survival odds of local private firms in the same industry, but there is also an indirect impact on the exit hazard from FDI. Local firms are more vulnerable to foreign entry in sectors with high SOE shares. Looking at the net effects of FDI during the period 2001–2008, we find that results vary between sectors and over time but that the overall impact has been surprising small. The paper also discusses policy conclusions and implications for empirical analyses of spillovers from FDI.
Impact of product-related environmental regulations in Asia: Descriptive statistics from a survey of firms in Vietnam.
Etsuyo Michida, Keoru Nebeshima and Yasushi Ueki. IDE Discussion paper 466, 2014.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the main results of a unique firm survey conducted in Vietnam in 2011 on product-related environmental regulations (PRERs). The results of this survey are compared with the results of a corresponding survey of firms in Penang, Malaysia (Michida, etal. 2014b). The major findings are as follows. First, adaptation to PRERs involves changes in input procurement and results in market diversification, which potentially alters the structure of supply chains. This finding is consistent with the Malaysian survey result. Second, connections to global supply chains are key to compliance, but this requires firms to meet more stringent customer requirements. Third, government policy can play an important role in assisting firms to comply with PRERs. [Michida-etal-2014.pdf]. Free full text http://www.ide.go.jp/English/
Book introduction: A major new volume in the Routledge International Handbooks series analysing emerging and newly emerged economies, including the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and other likely (Turkey, Indonesia, Mexico, and South Korea) as well as possible (Vietnam, The Philippines, Nigeria, Pakistan, Egypt, Colombia and Argentina) candidates for emerging economy status. Chapters on theories surrounding emerging markets (including the Beijing/Washington Consensus debate) offer an overview of current issues in development economics, in addition to providing an integrated framework for the country case studies. Written by experts, this handbook will be invaluable to academics and students of economics and emerging economies, as well as to business people and researchers seeking information on economic development and the accelerating pace of globalization.
The impact of the ACFTA on ASEAN–PRC trade: estimates based on an extended gravity model for component trade.
The impact of the ACFTA on ASEAN–PRC trade: estimates based on an extended gravity model for component trade.
Yu Sheng, Hsiao Chink Tang and Xinpeng Xu. Applied Economics, 2014, volume 46, number 19, pp. 2251-2263.
Abstract: This article uses an extended gravity model to examine the impact of the free trade agreement between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the People?s Republic of China (PRC) on their trade flows and patterns. New determinants are utilized to capture the growing importance of global production sharing and intraregional trade in parts and components in East Asia. We show that the free trade agreement leads to substantially higher and more pronounced bilateral trade flows between ASEAN and the PRC than what a conventional gravity model predicts and the increase is concentrated in ASEAN countries that have stronger industrial linkages with the PRC. [t&f].
**Education and training
Across borders and across cultures: Vietnamese students’ positioning of teachers in a university twinning programme.
Ha Vu and Stephanie Doyle. Journal of Education for Teaching, 2014, pp. 1-17.
Abstract: How do teachers and teaching appear to international students moving from the home country component of a twinning programme to the overseas partner university? This narrative study explored the perspectives of five Vietnamese students in their first months of studying for a commerce degree at a New Zealand university, having completed the first two years of their degree in Vietnam. The narratives drew on two interviews with each student, which were conducted and transcribed in Vietnamese, then translated into English. The lens of positioning theory was used to explore the students? experiences of teaching and learning in the new setting. Self-positioning and other positioning in narratives revealed that the students initially experienced a period of pedagogical dissonance when their new teachers did not act in familiar ways. As a result, they initially positioned their teachers as uncaring and themselves as being forced to ?self-study?. Within a short time, however, the students identified requirements for high achievement in the new environment and repositioned themselves in agentic ways and their teachers in a more positive light. This research has the potential to inform the professional development of teachers working in intercultural settings, and to support international students studying in a foreign country. [t-f].
Exploring mangrove social-ecological system dynamics in South-East Asia: linking livelihoods, vulnerability and ecosystem services in Vietnam.
Steven Orchard-etal-2014.pdf, Lindsay C. Stringer and Claire Quinn. Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy – Working Paper No. 169; Sustainability Research Institute – Paper No. 56, March 2014.
Abstract: Globally, human activities have led to rapid mangrove degradation. In Vietnam, as across much of coastal South-east Asia, mangroves play a vital role in the livelihoods of coastal rural communities with relatively low levels of development. However, little is known about the precise impact of human activity on the ecosystem services underpinning these livelihoods. This paper analyses the livelihoods of mangrove dependent communities to gain insights into how social-ecological systems are responding to human activities by identifying: 1) key aspects of change; 2) current household livelihood strategies; 3) characteristics of households most dependent on mangrove system provisioning goods; and 4) livelihood trajectories of illustrative mangrove dependent households. Guided by the sustainable livelihoods framework and resilience theory, employing a comparative case study of three communes on Vietnam’s northern coast, this research takes a mixed methods approach. Findings demonstrate that a rapidly growing aquaculture industry, facilitated by far-reaching land and market reforms, and local misappropriation of the benefits of these reforms, has undermined mangrove goods and services. A strong aquaculture industry has led to increased livelihood diversification at the community level, but growing specialisation at the household level. Female headed households were significantly more dependent on mangrove resources in all communes, and limited land use rights increased dependence on mangrove resources in communes with a growing aquaculture industry. Access to land, finance and social networks have increased the resilience of livelihoods, while a lack of these in combination with an absence of rights, environmental degradation, sickness and discrimination increased vulnerability. The paper concludes by identifying the key challenges facing mangrove social-ecological systems as: ensuring the maintenance of ecosystem functions and processes underpinning local livelihoods; fostering equitable distribution of ecosystem goods and services to encourage their sustainable use; and increasing the diversification of income opportunities to reduce pressure on mangrove resources. [Orchard-etal-2014.pdf]. Free full text http://www.cccep.ac.uk/
Lessons learned from southern and eastern Asian urban floods: from a local perspective.
R. Osti and T. Nakasu. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 2014.
Abstract: This study analyses 21 fatal flood events from 10 different southern and eastern Asian countries. The case-specific flood disaster-related data mainly categorised into flood characteristics, socio-economy, disaster preparedness, emergency response and impact are collected from the concerned authorities in each country. Data for all selected flood events are compiled and compared to check the seriousness of the flood problem at different localities in the selected regions. At least one flood event from each country, namely Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Thailand, Bangladesh and Nepal, is considered. The analysis was divided into three parts: (1) flood impact sector analysis, (2) flood human death cause analysis and (3) flood disaster critical cause and effect analysis. The result shows that the majority of flood-related deaths was mainly caused by drowning, which accounts 44% of flood deaths. Despite the evacuation advisories issued in 65% cases, many people stayed at homes either due to the lack of timely available information or due to confusion about the reliability of provided information or ignorance or overconfidence with their safety. In many cases, the early warning information did not reach to the community because of the lack of appropriate communication mechanisms. Most of the areas were protected by some levels of structural measures such as levees, but the quantity and quality of such measures are not sufficient and are not often linked to non-structural measures. Large-scale floods acutely impacted on public infrastructures. The worst hit sector was transportation. These results imply the importance of mainstreaming disaster risk management in the development sectors. Mainstreaming flood disaster risk management in the development sectors does not necessarily mean to only protect the hard gained development but at the same time to accelerate and enhance the effort of building resiliency and therefore the socioeconomic development by better planning and designing of any kind of infrastructures in the flood plain areas. The findings from this study are helpful in identifying, prioritising and coordinating the measures for the effective flood risk management at the localities. [wiley].
Sheltering From a Gathering Storm: Typhoon Resilience in Vietnam.
Tran Phong, Tuan Huu Tran and Anh Tuan Tran. Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-International, 2014.
Abstract: In recent years, floods and storms have caused extensive damage and losses to local communities despite great efforts by local governments and agencies to implement DRR. Housing is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate extremes, with typhoons causing the greatest impact among climate hazards. — Local households have adapted to living with floods, effectively adopting various autonomous measures to prevent and mitigate their impact. However, households still lack effective measures to withstand typhoon impacts, which greatly affect the poor and low-income groups. — Even though the economic returns on investing in a typhoon resilient shelter are high, households still might choose not to invest in resilient features. Policy interventions could encourage adoption of DRR measures by providing subsidized loans, promoting micro-insurance policies, adopting multi-hazard resilient construction, improving awareness of at-risk households and communities and stimulating local economies, bridging the gap between at-risk low-income groups and in-field professionals, and applying safety-related codes and criteria to local construction. [Phong-etal-2014.pdf]. Free full text http://www.i-s-e-t.org/images/
Social vulnerability to climate-induced natural disasters: Cross-provincial evidence from Vietnam.
Olivier Rubin. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 2014, volume 55, number 1, pp. 67-80.
Abstract: This paper conducts an analysis of the socioeconomic determinants of Vietnam’s cross-provincial variations in natural disaster vulnerability. The purpose is twofold: (i) to capture disaggregated vulnerability variations normally obscured by national statistics, thereby providing more nuanced insights into Vietnam’s vulnerability to natural disasters; and (ii) to take advantage of the fact that the overall political system and key institutional structures to a large extent are constant across Vietnam’s provinces, which makes the analysis a novel addition to the many disaster studies based on cross-national variations. The paper’s analysis indicates that much of Vietnam’s cross-provincial variations in natural disaster fatalities and economic costs can be explained by differences in key socioeconomic factors. High provincial rates of inequality, poverty and infant mortality, for instance, appear to drive up natural disaster fatalities. Local adaptation efforts should focus as much on these broader socioeconomic dimensions as they focus on the geophysical susceptibility to natural hazards of individual areas. [wiley].
Provincial Monitoring and Control System in Vietnam: Case Study of Hai Duong Province.
Pham Duc Binh. International Journal of Economics and Finance; Vol. 6, No. 4; 2014.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the provincial monitoring and control system in Vietnam. Through the case study of Hai Duong Province, the research results have shown that monitoring and control activities in this province have been carrying out in a fairly synchronous, comprehensive manner. In general, through monitoring and control activities, the functional agencies have handled some weaknesses concerning the organization and implementation of government administrative apparatus at the provincial level, but also the negative and corruptive acts of State officers, the duplications and overlaps activities among governmental and relating agencies and organizations. On the basis of these obtained results, we have proposed some relevant recommendations for the Vietnam government and its provincial management units. [Binh-2014.pdf]. Free full texthttp://www.ccsenet.org/
Analysis of hospital feeding practices at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi Vietnam (1015.7).
Lorraine Young, Pham Huong and others. The FASEB Journal, 2014, volume 28, number 1 Supplement.
Background: Limited data on nutrition support practices in the hospital setting are available in the country of Vietnam.
Methods: From October 2011-December 2011, a collaboration between investigators from the U.S. and the Vietnamese National Institute of Nutrition enrolled 72 subjects admitted for elective GI surgery for this observational study at Bach Mai Hospital, a major Hanoi teaching hospital. Baseline height, weight, BMI, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), body weight status, and daily kcal and protein/amino acid intake from oral diet, tube feeding, and IV feedings from admission until discharge were recorded.
Results: Mean age of subjects was 56±15 years and length of stay 12±5 days. 50% of subjects scored a B or C (moderate to severe malnutrition) on the SGA. BMI range was 13-28; 48% had a BMI < 18.5. MUAC was low normal (24±4 cm). All subjects lost weight during admission. Almost all patients (98%) were fed using parenteral nutrition (PN) postoperatively with oral feeding starting on postoperative day 4. Tube feedings were used in only one patient. Mean daily total calorie intake was 15 kcal/kg/day and protein intake was 0.61g/kg/day. Minimal or no micronutrient supplementation was given to most patients.
Conclusions: Study findings support the development of a nutrition intervention with feeding protocols to increase postoperative energy and micronutrient intake.
Determinants of the gap between breastfeeding knowledge and practices in Vietnamese mothers (119.1).
Tuan Nguyen, Phuong Nguyen and Nemat Hajeebhoy. The FASEB Journal, 2014, volume 28, number 1 Supplement.
Abstract: We conducted this analysis to examine determinants of the knowledge-practice gap in early and exclusive breastfeeding (BF). In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 10,834 mothers with children aged 0−23 months old in 11 of 63 provinces of Viet Nam about BF practices, knowledge, barriers and support. The knowledge-practice gap was defined when a mother knew about the benefit but did not perform the corresponding practice. The proportion of mothers with a knowledge-practice gap in early and exclusive BF was 34% and 66%, respectively. Mothers were ~10% less likely to have a knowledge-practice gap in early BF if they received BF advice and support from a health worker during pregnancy or at birth (P < 0.05; Poisson regression). The gap, however, was 60%, 140% and 20% more likely to occur among those with hospital delivery, cesarean delivery and BF difficulty, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). For exclusive BF, a 25% reduction in the gap was found if a mother believed that people who are important to her support exclusive BF (P < 0.001). A 5% increase in the gap was found among mothers who were exposed to infant formula advertising daily (P < 0.01). To reduce the knowledge-practice gap in early BF, programs should focus on strengthening support by health staff and minimizing health-facility related barriers. For exclusive BF, programs should focus on addressing socio-cultural barriers.
High burden of antimicrobial drug resistance in Asia.
Chi-Cheng Lai, Kyungwon Lee and others. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 2014.
Abstract: The rapid development of antimicrobial resistance among micro-organisms is a serious public health concern. Moreover, the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria makes this issue a global problem, and Asia is no exception. For example, since New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified in India, further spread of NDM has become a worldwide threat. However, the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in Asia may be different to other regions, and clinical condition may be worse than in western countries. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including community-acquired and hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, macrolide- and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, extend-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., are becoming prevalent in many countries in Asia. Moreover, the prevalence of each antibiotic-resistant bacterium in each country is not identical. This review provides useful information regarding the critical condition of antibiotic resistance in Asia and emphasises the importance of continuous surveillance of resistance data. [sci-dir].
Impact Evaluation of Health Insurance for Children: Evidence from a Developing Country.
Nguyen Viet Cuong. Ipag Business School Department of Research, T3 – Working Papers IS – 2014-180, 2014.
Abstract: Although there are numerous studies on impact evaluation of overall health insurance, little is known on the impact of health insurance on health care utilization and out-of-pocket health care spending of children, especially in developing countries. This paper measures the impact of child health insurance on health care utilization and spending of children from 6 to 14 years old in Vietnam using two recent nationally representative surveys. Unlike previous empirical studies which found a positive effect of health insurance on health care utilization in Vietnam, we did not find a statistically significant effect of school health insurance as well as free health insurance for children on outpatient health care contacts. However, the school health insurance and free health insurance help the insured children decrease out-of-pocket spending per outpatient contact by around 14 and 26 percent, respectively. Free full text http://EconPapers.repec.org/
The impact of health insurance on health services utilization and health outcomes in Vietnam. G. Emmanuel Guindon. Health Economics, Policy and Law, 2014, volume FirstView, pp. 1-24. Abstract: In recent years, a number of low- and middle-income country governments have introduced health insurance schemes. Yet not a great deal is known about the impact of such policy shifts. Vietnam’s recent health insurance experience including a health insurance scheme for the poor in 2003 and a compulsory scheme that provides health insurance to all children under six years of age combined with Vietnam’s commitment to universal coverage calls for research that examines the impact of health insurance. Taking advantage of Vietnam’s unique policy environment, data from the 2002, 2004 and 2006 waves of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey and single-difference and difference-in-differences approaches are used to assess whether access to health insurance – for the poor, for children and for students – impacts on health services utilization and health outcomes in Vietnam. For the poor and for students, results suggest health insurance increased the use of inpatient services but not of outpatient services or health outcomes. For young children, results suggest health insurance increased the use of outpatient services (including the use of preventive health services such as vaccination and check-up) but not of inpatient services. [Cambridge journals].
Nesting a project nutrition monitoring system within a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Viet Nam (632.17).
Tuan Nguyen, Silvia Alayon and others. The FASEB Journal, 2014, volume 28, number 1 Supplement.
Abstract: Alive & Thrive (A&T), in partnership with the Government of Viet Nam, is among the first to manage a network of 780 franchises that provide good-quality infant and young child nutrition counseling. This paper describes our experience in nesting the A&T project monitoring into the public health system and using monitoring data to strengthen franchise performance. Paper based forms are filled at village and commune level. Data are entered into excel forms at the district level, aggregated at the province level and submitted upwards to regional and national levels. The system has a 99% reporting rate. Training and regular supportive supervision ensure data quality. Data are analyzed on a monthly basis and shared back down the chain in user-friendly formats to enable management decisions. Franchises with low performance receive targeted assistance on demand generation and quality improvement. High-performing franchises receive performance-based awards. Data reveal that services reach almost 2/3 of children 0-23 months in the catchment areas. August 2013, a total of 95,000 monthly contacts was provided through the network with 73% of contacts being with repeat clients. A robust program monitoring can function well within a public health system, when the system is streamlined and user-friendly; and its findings are shared back in a timely manner to facilitate evidence-based decision making to improve quality.
Preparing for dengue vaccine introduction in ASEAN countries: recommendations from the first ADVA regional workshop.
Usa Thisyakorn, Maria R Capeding and others. Expert Review of Vaccines, 2014, pp. 1-7.
Abstract: The independent, scientific and educational The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States Dengue Vaccination Advocacy Steering Committee (ADVASC) was established in 2011 to address the practical challenges faced by ASEAN countries as they prepare for the eventual introduction of a dengue vaccine. ADVASC convened a workshop in September 2012 that drew together public health representatives and dengue experts from seven ASEAN countries in order to make practical recommendations to improve current surveillance and diagnostics for dengue to enable countries to assess consistently, and accurately communicate, the impact of a dengue vaccine. The workshop compared surveillance and diagnostic capacity in these ASEAN countries and made recommendations to streamline and harmonize key elements of these systems. In particular, attendees recommended the need for reconciliation and harmonization of the different World Health Organization guidelines, in use in ASEAN countries for case definition and surveillance of dengue.
**Energy – Industry
The evolution of Vietnamese industry.
Nguyen Thi Tue Anh, Luu Minh Duc and Trinh Duc Chieu. UNU-WIDER Working Paper 2014/076, 2014.
Abstract: The transfer from an import-substitution to an export-orientation strategy has been in effect in Vietnam since the reform process, Doi Moi, necessitating the reformulation of macroeconomic, trading and sectoral policies. As a result, the industry sector has experienced gradual growth as the country’s economy is becoming more open and gaining deeper integration with regional and the world economies, as exemplified by membership in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (1995) and World Trade Organization (2006). To support this integration process, the structure of the industrial sector has been changed to more appropriate since the Doi Moi. Many export processing zones, industrial zones and economic zones have been set up to attract the interest of multi-sectors, including foreign and non-state investors. Consequently, the capacity, output and productivity of the industrial sector have improved considerably. But certain policy issues also arose during the industrial development process. These can be summarized into three main problems: minimal contribution from current policies to improving competitiveness, policy failure to encourage firm restructuring, and lack of a well-coordinated framework for industrial policy. [Tue-Anh-etal-2014.pdf].
Analysis on Price Elasticity of Energy Demand in East Asia: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications for ASEAN and East Asia.
Han Phoumin and Shigeru Kimura. ERIA discussion paper series 2014-05, 2014.
Abstract: This study uses time series data of selected ASEAN and East Asia countries to investigate the patterns of price and income elasticity of energy demand. Applying a dynamic log-linear energy demand model, both short-run and long-run price and income elasticities were estimated by country. The study uses three types of dependent variable “energy demand” such as total primary energy consumption (TPES), total final energy consumption (TFEC) and total final oil consumption (TFOC) to regress on its determinants such as energy price and income. The finding shows that price elasticity is generally inelastic amongst all countries of studies. These findings support to the theory of price inelasticity of energy demand due to the assumption that energy remains a special commodity due to its nature of lack of substitution. Any shift from oil to other energy is difficult as it depends on equipment uses which are not easily to be replaced. As a result, a unit change in price may not induce equal change in quantity of demand. Although prices are inelastic, this study observed that price elasticity in developing counties is more sensitive than in developed countries. Among the countries studied, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines have shown to be price sensitive compared to other developing countries and developed countries. For the income elasticity, this study also found that income has been very sensitive towards energy consumption, except for countries like India, China and Australia due to energy supply limitation in the cases of India and China and to less energy intensive industrial structure in the case of Australia. The price elasticity by energy type shows that TPES has a smaller impact than TFEC and TFOC, and TFEC is smaller than TFOC in terms of sensitivity of the price elasticity. Amongst other reasons, fuel subsidies may play roles in the insensitivity of energy prices. The findings have policy implications as inelastic price will impact on the uptake of energy efficiency in developing as well as developed countries. Therefore, removal of energy subsidies, albeit done in a gradual manner, will be critical to the promotion of energy efficiency. Its impact likewise goes further in that it will benefit the Renewable Energy uptake, the environment and social benefits. Free full text http://www.eria.org/
Policy Implications for Improved Cook Stove Programs–A Case Study of the Importance of Village Fuel Use Variations.
Niklas Vahlne and Erik O. Ahlgren. Energy Policy, 2014, volume 66, number 484-95.
Abstract: Despite the long history of cook stove programs, very few have been successful, often only in areas where biomass is purchased or there is a biomass shortage. Several studies have described how rural households generally rely on several different fuels; which fuels are used may depend on various household characteristics such as location and income. This article explores possible consequences of variations in fuel usage for improved cook stove programs and how this may vary between different areas. Reductions of CO2 equivalent emissions and monetary savings are calculated for hypothetical cook stove deployment using data from a rural energy survey in the Vinh Phuc province of northern Vietnam. The results indicate that the areas may respond differently to the various stove options, both in terms of economy and emission reductions. Furthermore, there are large differences in emission reduction calculations when only Kyoto-gases are included and when non-Kyoto greenhouse agents are added. Assumptions regarding household behavior and stove efficiencies have large impacts on the results, indicating a need for further research on how improved cook stoves may influence households’ fuel choices.
Classifying and mapping the urban transition in Vietnam.
S. Saksena, J. Fox and others. Applied Geography, 2014, volume 50, pp. 80-89.
Abstract: The urban transition almost always involves wrenching social adjustment as small agricultural communities are forced to adjust rapidly to industrial ways of life. Large-scale in-migration of young people, usually from poor regions, creates enormous demand and expectations for community and social services. One immediate problem planners face in approaching this challenge is how to define, differentiate, and map what is rural, urban, and transitional (i.e., peri-urban). This project established an urban classification for Vietnam by using national census and remote sensing data to identify and map the smallest administrative units for which data are collected as rural, peri-urban, urban, or urban core. We used both natural and human factors in the quantitative model: income from agriculture, land under agriculture and forests, houses with modern sanitation, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Model results suggest that in 2006, 71% of Vietnam’s 10,891 communes were rural, 18% peri-urban, 3% urban, and 4% urban core. Of the communes our model classified as peri-urban, 61% were classified by the Vietnamese government as rural. More than 7% of Vietnam’s land area can be classified as peri-urban and approximately 13% of its population (more than 11 million people) lives in peri-urban areas. We identified and mapped three types of peri-urban places: communes in the periphery of large towns and cities; communes along highways; and communes associated with provincial administration or home to industrial, energy, or natural resources projects (e.g., mining). We validated this classification based on ground observations, analyses of multi-temporal night-time lights data, and an examination of road networks. The model provides a method for rapidly assessing the rural–urban nature of places to assist planners in identifying rural areas undergoing rapid change with accompanying needs for investments in building, sanitation, road infrastructure, and government institutions. [sci-dir].
Recent land subsidence caused by the rapid urban development in the Hanoi region (Vietnam) using ALOS InSAR data.
Dang V. K., C. Doubre and others. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 2014, volume 14, pp. 657-674.
Abstract: Since the 1990s the land subsidence due to the rapid urbanization has been considered a severely destructive hazard in the center of Hanoi City. Although previous studies and measurements have quantified the subsiding deformation in Hanoi center, no data exist for the newly established districts in the south and the west, where construction development has been most significant and where groundwater pumping has been very intensive over the last decade. With a multi-temporal InSAR approach, we quantify the spatial distribution of the land subsidence in the entire Hanoi urban region using ALOS images over the 2007–2011 period. The map of the mean subsidence velocity reveals that the northern bank of the Red River appears stable, whereas some areas in southern bank are subsiding with a mean vertical rate up to 68.0 mm yr−1, especially within the three new urban districts of Hoang Mai, Ha Dong – Thanh Xuan and Hoai Duc – Tu Liem. We interpret the spatial distribution of the surface deformation as the combination of the nature of the unsaturated layer, the lowering of groundwater in the aquifers due to pumping withdrawal capacity, the increase of built-up surfaces and the type of building foundation. The piezometric level in Qp aquifer lowers particularly after 2008, whereas the groundwater level in Qh aquifer remains steady, even if it loses its seasonal fluctuation in urban areas and drawdowns in neighboring water production plants. The time evolution deduced from the InSAR time series is consistent with previous leveling data and shows that the lowering rate of the surface slightly decreases till 2008. The analysis of groundwater levels in instrumented wells shows a correlation between the behavior of groundwater with the urban development and the acceleration of groundwater withdrawal. Also, the time variations suggest that the deformation became non-stationary, with upward and downward transient displacements related to the charge and discharge of the aquifers.
Labor Migration and Trafficking among Vietnamese Migrants in Asia.
Danièle Bélanger. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 2014, volume 653, number 1, pp. 87-106.
Abstract: Asia is known as a continent where human trafficking is particularly prevalent. Departing from the bulk of research on trafficking in Asia that focuses on illegal migration and prostitution, this article examines the embeddedness of human trafficking in legal temporary migration flows. This analysis uses survey and interview data to document the experiences of Vietnamese migrants who worked in East Asian countries. It identifies a continuum of trafficking, abuse, exploitation, and forced labor, and examines how exploitation begins at the recruitment stage with the creation of bonded labor. Guest-worker programs in destination countries put migrants in particularly precarious situations, which do, in some cases, qualify as trafficking. I argue that temporary migration programs may create the conditions that lead to extreme forms of exploitation among many legal migrant workers in the region.
Redefining poverty: Deprivation among children in East Asia and the Pacific.
Alberto Minujin, Carolyn McCaffrey and others. Global Social Policy, 2014, volume 14, number 1, pp. 3-31.
Abstract: This article presents the first measurement of multidimensional child poverty at the regional level in East Asia and the Pacific and is based on child poverty studies in seven countries in the region: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Vanuatu and Viet Nam. It examines the prevalence of child poverty, as per the Bristol deprivation approach, in the seven countries, as well as the extent of various types of disparities within these countries. A composite measure, the Child Poverty Index, is also applied. Findings reveal that widespread and severe deprivation is being faced by children in one subset of countries (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Mongolia), while the other subset of countries (Philippines, Thailand, Vanuatu and Viet Nam) is confronted with pockets of deprived child populations and the issue of less severe deprivation. Alternative policy approaches to reduce child poverty in these two subsets of study countries are also discussed.
Who Suffers the Penalty? A Panel Data Analysis of Earnings Gaps in Vietnam.
Nguyen Huu Chi, Christophe J. Nordman and Francois Roubaud. Journal of Development Studies, 2013, volume 49, number 12, pp. 1694-1710.
Abstract: In spite of its predominant economic weight in developing countries, little is known about the informal sector earnings structure compared to that of the formal sector. Taking advantage of the rich VHLSS dataset in Vietnam, in particular its three wave panel data (2002, 2004, 2006), we assess the magnitude of various formal-informal earnings gaps while addressing heterogeneity at three different levels: the worker, the job (wage employment vs. self-employment) and the earnings distribution. We estimate fixed effects and quantile regressions to control for unobserved individual characteristics. Our results suggest that the informal sector earnings gap highly depends on the workers’ job status and on their relative position in the earnings distribution. Penalties may in some cases turn into premiums. By comparing our results with studies in other developing countries, we draw conclusions highlighting Vietnam’s labour market specificity.
Rethinking Asian mobilities: Socialist Migration and Post-Socialist Repatriation of Vietnamese Contract Workers in East Germany.
Christina Schwenkel. Critical Asian Studies, 2014, volume 46, number 2, pp. 235-258.
Abstract: Vietnam’s economic reforms have generated much praise for the country’s rapid ?opening? of its markets, as if the Vietnamese nation had previously existed in a state of isolation, closed to broader global influences and exchanges. Such discourses overlook the importance of transnational circulations of people, goods, technologies, and expertise during the socialist era that were vital to Vietnam’s postwar national reconstruction and continue to play a role in post-socialist economic transformation today. This article traces the socialist pathways of labor migration between Vietnam and the former Soviet Bloc (specifically, East Germany) in the 1980s, mobilities that are generally absent in studies of contemporary export labor industries. Based on multi-sited ethnographic and archival research, the author follows Vietnamese workers first to the East German factories where they labored as ?contract workers,? and then through their subsequent return and reintegration into Vietnamese society after the collapse of the Soviet Union. These mobilities bespeak of an alternative history and formation of diasporic communities that are little acknowledged or addressed in literature on labor migrations, and yet are important to understanding emerging forms of stratification today in Vietnam. Moreover, an analysis of early non-capitalist experiences with overseas labor regimes in the 1980s provides insights into contemporary Vietnamese governance practices that promote – rather uncritically, similar to other “emerging countries” – export labor as a nation-building strategy to reduce endemic poverty and develop a late socialist country. [t-f].
High School Students as Media Consumers (Cases in Urban Areas of Hanoi).
Hoàng Thị Thu Hà. VNU Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2013, volume 29, number 4, pp. 55-64.
Abstract: According to Vietnam Internet Network Information Center (Ministry of Information of Communications), up to November of 2012, more than 1/3 population of Vietnam is using the Internet (35.58%) . Despite the fact that a majority of these people are of young age there have been just a few behavioral studies on the way young audience receive and react to the media. Recent development of the Internet in the world generally and in Vietnam particularly has created a number of new platforms for this audience to get information and to interact with each other on the cyber space. Thus, it is right time to put forward a question that is how are priorities of the media among Vietnamese young persons in terms of collecting information and getting recreation? Another question that should be brought about is how does young people interact with the media? This study employed two methods in investigating the enquiries. They were survey and focus group. Major findings included considerably high level of the Internet and television consumption and considerably low level of radio and newspapers consumption among investigated young audience. And both the survey and focus groups showed that the respondents had a habit of multitasking with different media simultaneously. By and large, high school students investigated had pretty high level of media exposure. Free full text http://tapchi.vnu.edu.vn/
The complexity of morality: Being a ‘good child’ in Vietnam?
Rachel Burr. Journal of Moral Education, 2014, pp. 1-13.
Abstract: In this article I examine what it means to be a good child in Vietnam. Throughout the country ancestral worship is widely practiced. This traditionally places emphasis on the need for a boy child to continue the practice of worship into the next generation. Because of this, while the high value placed on the boy child has been tempered by the influence of communist rule and modernity, the eldest boy still often holds preferential status. Under such circumstances the good child is one who accepts his or her position within the hierarchical structure of the family and is also willing to subjugate his or her individual needs to the greater collective good. This might manifest itself in a child?s ?choice? to work on the streets so that their earnings can be sent home to support other siblings through their schooling. Or it might show itself in the practice of children accepting and apparently supporting that fact that they have been sent to an orphanage or ?hidden? so that a parent can try for more male children. It would be naive though to conclude from this that boys and girls are automatically raised within separate moral frameworks. Instead this article proposes that at the local level what it means to be a good child is even more complex because the notion of the good, moral and filial child is shaped as much by family circumstances and expectation as it is by the mores and values of the wider society. [t&f]. Free full text http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/
Estimating Nonmarket Values in Halong Bay, Vietnam: A View from Theory of Planned Behavior.
Estimating Nonmarket Values in Halong Bay, Vietnam: A View from Theory of Planned Behavior.
Nguyen Viet Hanh, Jemal Abafita and others. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 2014, volume 5, number 5.
Abstract: The lack of psychological factors in traditional CV model doesn’t only influence the explanation of payment behavior, but also it affects the accuracy of the WTP result, which is closely related to the policy making process for natural conservation and environmental improvement programs. Therefore, there is a need to link the psychological factors and to the payment behavior. This paper is started by discussion of some influential causes on validity and reliability of estimation results in traditional CV model, and then introduces a new model that is built from incorporating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) into the CVM. Linear regression model and hierarchical technique was applied for empirical analysis. The results of empirical analysis indicated that if WTP was identified as an expression of individual behavior, then it would be explained preferably by the theoretical framework of planned behavior while still conform to principles in the theory of consumer behavior. The results also shown that the WTP was not only affected by factors like income, cost, personal context, and attributes of environmental good in hypothetical market, but also it was influenced strongly and significantly by psychological factors. Regarding with the reliability of estimation result, this paper investigated that the CV result depends on the number and types of explanatory variables that put into the estimation model. The WTP value, for environmental quality improvement in Halong Bay, Vietnam, was US$0.60/ person/ trip. An extra charge might be added to the price of entrance ticket. Free full text http://www.iiste.org/Journals/